Genus: Caiman SPIX, 1825
Etymology: Caiman is a Spanish word for alligator or crocodilian.
= Cynosuchus GRAY, 1862
Etymology: Greek, cyno, "dog" and Greek, suchos, "crocodile."
= Jacare GRAY, 1844
Etymology: Old Tupi, Îakaré, "alligator."
= Jacaretinga SPIX, 1825
Etymology:
= Perosuchus COPE, 1868
Etymology:
= Proalligator AMBROSETTI, 1890
Etymology: Greek, pro, "before" + Alligator.
= Xenosuchus RUSCONI, 1933
Etymology: Greek, xenos, "strange, peculiar" and Greek, suchos, "crocodile."

Species: latirostris (DAUDIN, 1802) (Living)
Etymology: Latin, lati, "wide or broad" and Latin, rostris, "nose or snout"; Wide nose.
= Crocodilus latirostris DAUDIN, 1802
(Broad-snouted Caiman, Overo, Yacaré Overo, Ururan, Yacaré de Hocico Ancho, Jacaré de Papo Amarelo, Jacaré Verde, Jacaré de Hocico, Ancho, Brazilian caiman, Dog-headed Jacare, Tinga)

Locality: Along the east cost of South America from about 5 degrees south to the Rio de la Plata, Uruguay and Parana Rivers

= Cynosuchus latirostris (DAUDIN, 1802)
= Caiman fissipes SPIX, 1825
Etymology:
= Champsa fissipes (SPIX, 1825)
= Jacare fissipes (SPIX, 1825)
= Crocodilus sclerops WIED, non SCHNEIDER, 1825
= Alligator sclerops SCHNEIDER, 1825 (partim) GRAY, 1831
Etymology:
= Alligator cynocephalus DUMERIL & BIBRON, 1836
Etymology: Greek, cyno, "dog" and Greek, cephalus, "head."
= Jacare latirostris GRAY, 1862
= Alligator latirostris (GRAY, 1862)
= Jacrentinga latirostris (GRAY, 1862)

Referred material:

BONA, BARRIOS, & GASPARINI, 2016

Locality: Argentina.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Miocene Epoch, Lower Neogene Period, Upper Tertiary Subera, Middle Cenozoic Era.

Material:

MACN-PV 5416: Fragment of left rostrum.

 

Locality: Valle Calchaqui, Salta Province, Argentina.

Horizon: Palo Pintado Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Miocene/Plestiocene Epoch, Upper Quaternary Subera, Upper Cenozoic Era.

Material:

MLP 89-XII-5-1: Fragmentary left dentary.

FMNH-P 15029: Rostrum.

MAS-PALEO 001/2011: Nearly complete skull.

 

MARINHO, PORPINO & SANTOS, 2005

Locality: Lajedo da Escada, 5°14'E 37°W, Barauna Municipality, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil.

Horizon: Jandaira Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Pleistocene Epoch, Upper Quaternary Subera, Upper Cenozoic Era.

Material:

Number: Not given: Fragmentary skull.

 

PATTERSON, 1936

Locality: Quebrada Agua Blanca, eastern part of the Salta Province, Argentina.

Horizon: Upper Chaco Beds.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Pleistocene Epoch, Upper Quaternary Subera, Upper Cenozoic Era.

Material:

FM P15029: A well preserved snout.

 

SCHEYER, & DELFINO, 2016

Locality: Capa de Tortugas/Corralito (Tio Gregorie), Falcon Basin, Falcon State, northern Venezuela.

Horizon: Urumaco Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Miocene Epoch, Lower Neogene Period, Upper Tertiary Subera, Middle Cenozoic.

Material:

= Caiman lutescens

MCNC-URU-2002-145:


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Subspecies: latirostris latirostris (DAUDIN, 1802) (Living)
Etymology:
= Crocodilus latirostris latirostris DAUDIN, 1802

Locality: Ranging up the eastern region of Brazil from 32 degrees south to 6 degrees south.
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Subspecies: latirostris chacoensis FREIBERG & LEITAO DE CARVALHO, 1965 (Living)
Etymology: Latin, lati, "wide or broad" and Latin, rostris, "nose or snout"; Wide nose.

Locality: Ranging from 32 degrees south through Entre Rios and Santa Fe northwards to Chaco, Formosa and Jujuy.
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Species: crocodilus (LINNE, 1768) (Living)
Etymology: Latin, crocodilis, crocodile.
= Lacerta crocodilus LINNE, 1758

The Spectacled Caiman.

Locality: Southern Mexico, Central America, and tropical and subtropical South America.

= Jacarentinga crocodilus (LINNE, 1758)
= Crocodilus sclerops SCHNEIDER, 1801
Etymology:
= Champsa sclerops (SCHNEIDER, 1801)
= Alligator sclerops (SCHNEIDER, 1801) (partim) GRAY, 1831
= Caiman sclerops (SCHNEIDER, 1801)
= Jacarentinga sclerops (SCHNEIDER, 1801)
= Crocodilus caiman DAUDIN, 1802
Etymology: Caiman is a Spanish word for alligator or crocodilian.
= Jacarentinga punctulatus SPIX, 1825
Etymology:
= Alligator punctulatus (SPIX, 1825)
= Jacare punctulatus (SPIX, 1825)
= Champsa vallifrons NATTERER, 1840
Etymology:
= Champsa punctulata NATTERER, 1840
= Jacare hirticollis GRAY, 1867
Etymology:
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Subspecies: crocodilus yacare (DAUDIN, 1802) (Living)
Etymology:
= Crocodilus crocodilus yacare DAUDIN, 1802
(The Southern Spectacled Caiman, Yacare caiman, Paraguayan caiman, Red caiman, Piranha caiman, Coscarudo, Yacare de Hocico, Angosto, Yacare negro, Southern spectacled caiman, Angosto, Caimán del Paraguay, caimán yacaré, Jacaré, Jacarétinga, Jacará de lunetos, lagarto,buy jaeger lecoultre discount tinga, yacare, yacaré)

Locality: Paraguay-Parana system, Amazon system, Rio Guapore, Brazil, and Bolivia.

= Jacarentinga crocodilus yacare (DAUDIN, 1802)
= Caiman crocodilus crocodilus (LINNE, 1758)
= Champsa sclerops NATTEREN, 1844 non SCHMIDT
= Jacare longiscutata GRAY, 1862
Etymology:
= Jacare ocellata GRAY, 1862
Etymology:
= Jacare multiscutata GRAY, 1867
Etymology:
= Caiman yacare SCHMIDT, 1928
Etymology:

Referred material:

= Camian cf. C. yacare BONA, BARRIOS, & GASPARINI, 2016

Locality: Banks of the Parana River, in the area of Parana, Entre Rios Province, Argentina.

Horizon: "Conglomerado Osifero", Ituzaingo Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Miocene Epoch, Lower Neogene Period, Upper Tertiary Subera, Middle Cenozoic Era.

Material:

MLP 73-IV-15-5, -6: Dentary fragments.

MLP 73-IV-5-17, MACN PV 5417: Fragments of right maxilla.

 

= Camian yacare FORTIER, BROCHU & SOUZA FILHO, 2009

Locality: Niteroi locality, Lower Acre River, near Rio Branco Municipality, Brazil.

Horizon: Solimoes Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Miocene Epoch, Lower Neogene Period, Upper Tertiary Subera, Middle Cenozoic Era.

Material:

Number: Not given: Partial skull.


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Subspecies: crocodilus fuscus (COPE, 1868) (Living)
Etymology: Latin, fuscus, "brown"; referring to its body color.
= Perosuchus crocodilus fuscus COPE, 1868
(Brown Caiman, American Caiman, Cuajipal, Dusky caiman, Jacaretinga, Lagarto Chato, Lagarto de Concha, Lagarto negro, Magdalena caiman, Pululo, Talulín, Wizizil)

Locality: Southern Mexico, Central America, north-western South America, Magdalena River.

= Jacarentinga crocodilus fuscus (COPE, 1868)
= Alligator (Jacare) chiapasius BOCOURT, 1876
= Caiman fuscus SCHIMDT, 1928
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Subspecies: crocodilus crocodilus (LINNE, 1758) (Living)
Etymology:
= Lacerta crocodilus crocodilus LINNE, 1758

The Common Caiman.

Locality: Northern and north-eastern South America, Venezuela, Guayana and lower Amazon.

= Jacaretinga crocodilus crocodilus (LINNE, 1758)
= Caiman sclerops SCHMIDT, 1928


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Subspecies: crocodilus apaporiensis MEDEM, 1955 (Living)
Etymology: In reference to the Rio Apaporis River Latinized to ‘apapori’ and Latin, ensis, "belonging to";replica rolex day date president Belonging to the Rio Apaporis River.

Locality: Rio Appaporis, Southeast Colombia.
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Species:  australis  (BUMEISTER, 1895) BONA, BARRIOS, & GASPARINI, 2016
Etymology: Latin, australis, "to the south, southern."
= Crocodilus australis BUMEISTER, 1885
= Proalligator australis (BUMEISTER, 1885) AMBROSETTI, 1890
= Alligator australis (BUMEISTER, 1895) ROVERETO, 1912
= Jacaretinga australis (BUMEISTER, 1895) SAEZ, 1928

Holotype: MACN PV 258

Locality: Banks of the Parana River, in the area of Parana, Entre Rios Province, Argentina.

Horizon: "Conglomerado Osifero", Ituzaingo Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Miocene Epoch, Lower Neogene Period, Upper Tertiary Subera, Middle Cenozoic Era.

Material: Complete left maxilla.

= Crocodilus meridionalis SCALBRINI, 1887 (nomen nudum)
Etymology:
= Alligator paranensis (SCALBRINI, 1887) (nomen nudum)
Etymology:
= Crocodilus paranensis SCALBRINI, 1887 (nomen nudum)
= Proagalligator paranensis (SCALBRINI, 1887) RUSCONI, 1932 (nomen nudum)
= Xenosuchus paranensis (SCALBRINI, 1887) RUSCONI, 1933 (nomen nudum)
= Camain paranensis (SCALBRINI, 1887) PATTERSON, 1936
= Paranasaurus SCALBRINI, 1887 (nomen nudum)
Etymology:

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Species: sclerops MEDEM, 1955 (nomen dubium)
Etymology:
= Caiman sclerops fuscus (COPE, 1968 )

Holotype: Chicago Natural History Museum, 69812

Locality: Upper Rio Apaporis, Comisariato Amazonas, Colombia, South America.

Living

Material: Skull of an adult.

Paratypes:

FMNH 69813-32: 20 specimens.

= Caiman sclerops apaporiensis MEDEM, 1955
Etymology:

Paratype: ZMB 37253 (as per Bauer, A. M., and Günther, R., 2006)

= Caiman sclerops chiapasius BOUCORT

NOTE: This above suggested combantion was purposed by MEDEM in 1958, but no formal definition of Caiman sclerops sclerops was made, these taxa has no nomenclature validity (Langston, 1965)
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Species: lutescens (ROVERTO, 1912)
Etymology:
= Alligator lutescens ROVERTO, 1912
= Xenosuchus lutescens RUSCONI, 1933

Holotype: MACN-PV 13551

Locality: Banks of the Parana River, in the area of Parana, Entre Rios Province, Argentina.

Horizon: "Conglomerado Osifero", Ituzaingo Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Miocene Epoch, Lower Neogene Period, Upper Tertiary Subera, Middle Cenozoic Era.

Material: Dorsal surface of a skull table, the conjoined left premaxilla, maxilla and part of the nasal, the right premaxilla, the anterior portion of the right dentary, a cervical, a posterior dorsal, 1st sacral and 3 caudals, and scutes.

Referred material:

 

= Caiman cf. lutescens LANGSTON, 1965

Locality: UC locality V-4527, Huila, south of Qda, La Venta and partly in Qda, Las Lajas drainage, extending over divide into Rio Tatacoa Drainage, Colombia, South America.

Horizon: Unnamed Locality.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Miocene Epoch, Lower Neogene Period, Upper Tertiary Subera, Middle Cenozoic.

Material:

UCMP 39978: Incomplete skull lacking most of the occiput and braincase, the cranial table, and the right temporal arcade.

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Species: praecursor (RUSCONI, 1933)
Etymology: Latin, praecursor, "forerunner."
= Jacarentinga praecursor RUSCONI, 1933
= Xenosuchus praecursor RUSCONI, 1933

   Holotype:

Locality: Vicinity of Parana, Argentina.

Horizon: Entrerrios beds.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Early Pliocene Epoch, Upper Neogene Period, Lower Quaternary Subera, Upper Cenozoic Era.

Material: Anterior third dentary.

Referred material:

ROVERETO, 1912

Locality:

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age:

Material:

Number: Not given: A mandibular fragment.

 

RUSCONI 1948

Locality:

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age:

Material

Number: Not given: Tooth.

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Species: brevirostris SOUZA FILHO, 1987
Etymology: Latin, brevis, "short" and Latin, rostris, "snout."

Holotype: UFAC 196

Locality: Lula locality, near the municipality Sena Mandureira, Acre State, Brazil.

Horizon: Solimoes Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Miocene Epoch, Lower Neogene Period, Upper Tertiary Subera, Middle Cenozoic.

Material: Incomplete rostrum wiht associated right mandibular ramus.

Referred material;

FORTIER, DE SOUZA-FILHO, GUILHERME, MACHIENTE & SCHULTZ, 2014

Locality: Talimsa Locality, UFAC 5388, near the municipality Manuel Urbano, Amazonas State, Brazil.

Horizon: Solimoes Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Miocene Epoch, Lower Neogene Period, Upper Tertiary Subera, Middle Cenozoic.

Material:

UFAC 5388: Fragmented skull; premaxillae, maxillae, nasals, jugals, prefrontals, frontal, left postorbital, right squamosal, parietal, right quadrate, basioccipital, and pterygoid; mandibular rami; dentaries, splenials, right surangular, adn articular, adn postcranium elements.

 

SCHEYER, & DELFINO, 2016

Locality: Urmaco, Falcon State, Venezuela.

Horizon: Urumaco Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Miocene Epoch, Lower Neogene fake watches for sale montblanc watch replica Period, Upper Tertiary Subera, Middle Cenozoic.

Material:

MCNC-1829: Nearly complete skull.

 

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Species: tremembensis CHIAPPE, 1988
Etymology: In reference to the municipality of Tremembe.

Holotype: D.G. M. 1444-R

Locality: Municipio de Tremembe, Bairro do Padre Eterno, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

Horizon: Tremembe Formation, Group Taubate.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Oligocene Epoch, Upper Paleogene Period, Upper Tertiary Subera, Middle Cenozoic.

Material: Anterior fragment of dentary.

Referred material:

D.G.M. 1443-R: 4 vertebrae, dermal ostoderms, and distal end of humerus.

_____________________________________________________________________________________
Species: “pachytemporalis” SOUZA-FILHO, 1999 (nomen nudum)
= Nova DORNELLES, SOUZA-FILHO & BARBERENA, 1999

Holotype: UFAC 2507

Locality: Acre Basin, Brazil.

Horizon: Solimoes Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Miocene Epoch, Lower Neogene Period, Upper Tertiary Subera, Middle Cenozoic.

Material: Skull.

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Species: niteroiensis SOUZA FILHO & BOCQUETIN-VILLANUEVA, 1991
Etymology:

Holotype:

Locality:

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age:

Material:

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Species: gasparinae BONA & CARABAJAL, 2013
Etymology: In honor of Dr. Zulma Brandoni de Gasparini, paleoherpetologist at the Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, MLP, who dedicated most of her career to the study of extinct crocodyliformes.

Holotype: MLP-73-IV-15-1

Locality: Margin of Parana River, in the area of Parana, Entre Rios Province, Argentina.

Horizon: Ituzaingo Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Miocene Epoch, Lower Neogene Period, Upper Tertiary Subera, Middle Cenozoic.

Material: Skull fragments represented by a rostrum with articulated fragments of premaxillae, maxillae, nasals, left lacrymal and a partial braincase lacking the basicranium.

Referred material:

MACN PV 5555: Fragment of right premaxilla.

  _____________________________________________________________________________________

Species: wannlangstoni SALAS-GISMONDI, FLYNN, BABY, TEJADA-LARA, WESSELINGH, & ANTOINE, 2015
Etymology: In honor of Wann Langston Jr, for his invaluable contributions to the knowlege of South American fossil crocodylians.

Holotype: MUSM 2377

Locality: Locality IQ26, Iquitos area, Fernando Lores District, Peru.

Horizon: Pebas Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Middle Miocene Epoch, Neogene Period, Lower Quaternary Subera, Cenozoic Era.

Material: Partial skull.

Referred material:

MUSM 926: Partial left dentary and splenial.

MUSM 1495: Partial right dentary and splenial.

MUSM 1906: Left mandible.

MUSM 1935: Anterior portion of right denary.

MUSM 2181: Juvenile maxilla.

 

Locality: Locality IQ114, Iquitos area, Fernando Lores District, Peru.

Horizon: Pebas Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Mollusc Zone 8.

Age: Late Middle Miocene Epoch, Neogene Period, Lower Quaternary Subera, Cenozoic Era.

Material:

MSUM 1983: Associated cranial andmandibular elements.

MUSM 928: Right maxilla.

 

Locality: Urumaco area, Falcon State, Venezuela.

Horizon: Urumaco Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Middle Miocene Epoch, Neogene Period, Lower Quaternary Subera, Cenozoic Era.

Material:

AMU-CURS-49: A right premaxilla and maxilla.

 

          SCHEYER, & DELFINO, 2016

(Note: Was albelled "Caiman lutesens")

Locality: Corralito, Miranda State, Venezuela.

Horizon: Urumaco Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Middle Miocene Epoch, Neogene Period, Lower Quaternary Subera, Cenozoic Era.

Material:

AMU-CURS-049: