Genus: Borealosuchus BROCHU, 1997
Etymology: Greek, borealos, “Northern” and Greek, souchos, “crocodile”; Northern Crocodile.

Species: sternbergii (GILMORE, 1911) BROCHU, 1997
Etymology:
= Leidyosuchus sternbergii GILMORE 1911

Holotype: USNM 6533

Locality: North side of Cheyenne River, Converse County, Wyoming.

Horizon: Lance Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lancian age, upper Maastrichtian Stage, uppermost Senonian subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material: Skull, lower jaw, 8 vertebrae, both humeri, the right fibula, left metatarsal II, and other fragmentary parts of the skeleton.

Referred material:

AMNH 5898: Skull.

 

BYRANT, 1990

Locality: Northeastern Montana.

Horizon: Hell Creek Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lancian age, upper Maastrichtian Stage, uppermost Senonian subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

UCMP 130767: Dentary and angular fragments.

 


Locality: Northeastern Montana.

Horizon: Tullock Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Early Paleocene Epoch, Lower Paleogene Period, Lower Tertiary Subera, Cenozoic Era.

Material:

UCMP 126099, 130469: Skulls.

UCMP 119282: Anterior snout.

UCMP 120434: Snout and jaws.

UCMP 130435: Skull fragments and jaws.

 


ESTES, 1964

Locality: Wyoming.

Horizon: Lance Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lancian age, upper Maastrichtian Stage, uppermost Senonian subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

Number: Not given: Skull fragments, teeth, vertebrae, limb bones and scutes.

 


ESTES & BERBERIN, 1970

Locality: Bug Creek Anthills, McCone County, Montana.

Horizon: Hell Creek Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lancian age, upper Maastrichtian Stage, uppermost Senonian subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

MCZ 3648: Teeth

 


BREITHAUPT, 1982

Locality: UW Locality V-79032, Rock Springs Uplift, Sweetwater County, Wyoming.

Horizon: Lance Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lancian age, upper Maastrichtian Stage, uppermost Senonian subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

UW 14077, 14078, 14079: Teeth.

UW 14080: Parietal Fragment.

 


CARPENTER, 1979

Locality: Weld County, Colorado.

Horizon: Laramie Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lancian Age, upper Maastrichtian Stage, uppermost Senonian Subepoch, Upper Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

UCM 38529: Teeth.

 


COULTON, 1975

Locality: West side of the Red Deer River near Morrin Bridge in Central Wheatland County, Alberta Province, Canada.

Horizon: Edmonton Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Edmontonian age, Upper Campanian Stage- Lower Maastrichtian Stage, Senonian subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

RLC 715: Tooth.

 


GILMORE, 1911

Locality: Montana.

Horizon: Hell Creek Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lancian age, upper Maastrichtian Stage, uppermost Senonian subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

Number: Not given: Incomplete skull.

 

HOLROYD & HUTCHISON, 2002

Locality: V 86064, western North Dakota.

Horizon: Hell Creek Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lancian Age, upper Maastrichtian Stage, uppermost Senonian Subepoch, Upper Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

131769:

 

Locality: V 86065, western North Dakota.

Horizon: Hell Creek Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lancian Age, upper Maastrichtian Stage, uppermost Senonian Subepoch, Upper Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

Number: Not given:

 

TRIEBOLD, 1997

Locality: Sandy Site, Harding County, South Dakota.

Horizon: Hell Creek Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lancian age, upper Maastrichtian Stage, uppermost Senonian subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

Number: Not given:

 

WHITMORE, 1988

Locality: SDSM Locality V851, Zerbst Locality, east of the Cheyenne River, Niobrara County, Wyoming.

Horizon: Lance Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lancian age, upper Maastrichtian Stage, uppermost Senonian subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

SDSM 12450: 98 isolated teeth.

 

Locality: SDSM Locality V852, Hanson Locality, Niobrara County, Wyoming.

Horizon: Lance Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lancian age, upper Maastrichtian Stage, uppermost Senonian subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

SDSM 12449: 86 isolated teeth.

 


Locality: SDSM Locality V853, Leonard’s Lizard Site, Niobrara County, Wyoming.

Horizon: Lance Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lancian age, upper Maastrichtian Stage, uppermost Senonian subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

SDSM 12448: 7 isolated teeth.

 


Locality: SDSM Locality V851A, Lower Zerbst Locality, Niobrara County, Wyoming.

Horizon: Lance Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lancian age, upper Maastrichtian Stage, uppermost Senonian subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

SDSM 12447: 1 isolated tooth.

 

Locality: SDSM Locality V685, Greasewood Creek Locality, northern side of the south fork of the Greasewood Creek, Niobrara County, Wyoming.

Horizon: Lance Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Lancian age, upper Maastrichtian Stage, uppermost Senonian subepoch, Upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material:

SDSM 12711: 15 isolated teeth.

 


= Leidyosuchus gilmori MOOK, 1959
Etymology: In honor of Charles Gilmore.

Holotype: AMNH 5352

Locality: Red Deer River, 2 miles below Steveville, Dinosaur Provincial Park, Newell County, Alberta Province, Canada.

Horizon: Dinosaur Park Formation, upper Judith River Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Judithian age, Middle Campanian Stage, middle Senonian subepoch, upper Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material: Incomplete, crushed skull with skull table, braincase and posteriorolateral portion of the left side reconstructed.

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Species: acutidentatus (STERNBERG, 1932) BROCHU, 1997
Etymology:
= Leidyosuchus acutidentatus STERNBERG, 1932

Holotype: NMC 8544

Locality: SE 1/4 Sec. 31, T. 5R. 28 W of 2 principal meridian, southeast Montague Lake, Saskatchewan Province, Canada.

Horizon: Upper Ravenscrag Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Paleocene Epoch, Lower Paleogene Period, Lower Tertiary Subera, Cenozoic Era.

Material: Skull and dentary.

Referred material:

LUCAS & SULLIVAN, 1986

Locality: MNA locality 325 in the SW 1/4, NE 1/4, NE 1/4, NW 1/4, sec. 29, T24N, R9W, Kimbeto Arroyo, San Juan County, New Mexico.

Horizon; Torrejonian interval of the Nacimiento Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Paleocene Epoch, Lower Paleogene Period, Lower Tertiary Subera, Cenozoic Era.

Material:

MNA P. 2612: Skull and lower jaw plus associated vertebrae and other postcrania.

_____________________________________________________________________________________
Species: wilsoni (MOOK, 1959) BROCHU, 1997
Etymology:
= Leidyosuchus wilsoni MOOK, 1959

Holotype: AMNH 7637

Locality: Near Wamsutter, Sweatwater County, Wyoming.

Horizon: Green River Formation, immediately above the Wamsutter Coal Beds.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Middle Eocene Epoch, Paleogene Period, Lower Tertiary Subera, Lower Cenozoic Era.

Material: Skull missing some of the left premaxilla.

Referred material:

= Borealosuchus cf. B. wilsoni STOUT, 2012

Locality: La Brarge, Green River, Wyoming.

Horizon: Bridger Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Bridgerian, Early Eocene Epoch, Paleogene Period, Lower Tertiary Subera, Lower Cenozoic Era.

Material:

TATE 2070: Anterior left dentary with teeth.

 


_____________________________________________________________________________________

Species: riggsi (SCHMIDT, 1938) BROCHU, 1997
Etymology:
= Leidyosuchus riggsi SCHMIDT, 1938

Holotype: FMNH P15582

Locality: Plateau Valley Beds, Hell's Half Acre, Mesa County, Colorado.

Horizon: DeBeque Formation, Plateau Valley local fauna.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Paleocene Epoch, Lower Paleogene Period, Lower Tertiary Subera, Cenozoic Era.

Material: Imperfect skull.

Paratype: FMNH P15778: Ramus fragment with 5 teeth.

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Species: formidabilis (ERICKSON, 1976) BROCHU, 1997
Etymology:
= Leidyosuchus formidabilis ERICKSON, 1976

Holotype: SMM P71.16.28

Locality: SMM Wannagan Creek Quarry, Lower Level, NW 1/4 Sec. 18. 18, T. 141 N., R. 102 W., Billings County., North Dakota.

Horizon: Bullion Creek Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Paleocene Epoch, Lower Paleogene Period, Lower Tertiary Subera, Cenozoic Era.

Material: Skull with lower jaw intact except for posterior part of left half.

Referred Material:

SMM P70.16.3: Radius.

SMM P70.16.21: Ischium.

SMM P70.20.9: Skull and lower jaw.

SMM P70.20.171: Femur.

SMM P72.34.184, P70.20.377, P70.20.388, P70.20.393, P70.20.412: Mandibles.

SMM P70.20.404: Ilium.

SMM P70.20.409: Coracoid.

SMM P71.16.10: Scapula.

SMM P71.16.17: Ulna.

SMM P71.16.106: Proatlas.

SMM P71.16.256: Pubis.

SMM P70.20.407, P71.16.29, P72.34.87, P72.34.183: Skulls and lower jaws.

SMM P72.34.95: Tarsus.

SMM P72.34.126: Branchial horn.

SMM P71.16.7, P71.16.24, P73.34.18, P72.34.150, P72.34.185: Ribs.

SMM P75.22.6, P72.34.202, P74.24.105: Skulls of a juveniles.

SMM P72.34.203: Humerus.

SMM P73.25.70: Juvenile vertebra.

SMM P74.24.6: Skull, lower jaw and skeleton.

SMM P74.24.36: Skeleton.

SMM P74.24.37: Interclavicle.

SMM P74.24.103: Skull.

SMM P74.24.185: Hatchling vertebra.

SMM P74.24.186: Young neurocentrum.

SAWYER & ERICKSON, 1998

Paleopathologies

SMM P84.19.3, P78.14.133: Skulls with perforating fractures.

SMM P79.19.1026: Left surangular with probable perforating fracture.

SMM P83.12.64: Atlas with possible osteomyelits missing intercentrum and neurocentra.

SMM P76.33.289: First dorsal with exostosis, probable chondroma.

SMM P75.22.518: Dorsal vertebra with peristeopathy.

SMM P.70.20.1775: Dorsal vertebra with periosteopathy.

SMM P.70.2-.1752, P72.34.96, P73.25.73, P74.24.6, P75.22.1-7, P75.22.110, P75.22.351, P76.28.474. P76.28.863, P76.28.936, P76.28.980, P76.28.1014, P76.33.392, P79.19.109, P79.19.772, P79.19.781, P79.19.782, P79.19.807, P79.19.816, P79.19.817, P79.19.900, P79.19.987, P79.19.990, P. 79.19.991, P79.19.992, P79.19.993, P79.19.1095, P80.10.344 (2 elements) P82.12.5, P83.12.99, P89.6.56, P89.6.161, P91.17.198, P91.17.201, P93.22.61, P93.22.146, P93.22.148, P93.22.168, P95.13.18, P95.13.19, P95.13.20, P95.13.21, P95.13.22, P95.13.23, P95.13.24, P95.13.25: Pathologic dorsal centra.

SMM P89.6.214: Dorsal vertebra with possible osteomelitis.

SMM P70.20.408: 3 dorsal vertebra with spondyloarthropathy.

SMM P82.12.258: First sacral vertebra missing neural spine, but includes left rib with periosteopathy.

SMM P.95.13.6: Caudal vertebra with transverse fracture and periosteopathy.

SMM P79.19.1001: Caudal vertebral centrum with periosteopathy.

SMM P71.16.293, P76.28.847, P76.33.284, P76.33.464, P79.19.649, P79.19,654, P79.19.665, P79.19.669, P79.19.678, P79.19.809, P79.19.859, P79.19.988, P79.19.999, P79.19.1000, P79.19.1002, P79.19.1089, P83.12.42, P91.17.105, P93.14.148, P93.22.98, P95.13.3, P95.13.4: Pathologic caudal centra.

SMM P72.34.24: Chevron with transverse fracture.

SMM P83.12.65: Chevron with probable transverse fracture.

SMM P79.19.997: Chevron with possible malformation.

SMM P83.12.63: Cervical rib with probable osteomyelitis.

SMM P73.25.115: Dorsal rib with possible greenstick fracture.

SMM P89.6.79: Dorsal rib with ribbed periosteopathy and spondyloarthropathy.

SMM P70.20.420: Interclavicle with probable depressed fracture.

SMM P76.28.804: Right scapula with exostosis.

SMM P95.13.12: Right humerus with periosteopathy.

SMM P74.24.12: Radius with fusiform osteopathy.

SMM P77.33.21: ¾ of proximal end of a radius with periosteopathy.

SMM P75.22.346: Radius missing distal end with probable comminuted fracture and secondary osteomyelitis.

SMM P76.28.905: ¾ shaft of a ulna missing both ends and having periosteopathy.

SMM P79.19.1007, P76.28.372: 2 ulnae with periostopathy.

SMM P75.22.480 : Left ulna with probable osteomylitits.

SMM P73.25.1 : Left pubis with ribbed periosteopathy.

SMM P77.33.7 : Right femur with possible oblique fracture.

SMM P76.28.900 : Left femur with osteomyelitis.

SMM P79.19.1120 : Proximal 2/3rds of a femur with exostoses.

SMM P70.20.1783 : Proximal ½ of femur with exostoses.

SMM P76.28.55: tibia with oblique fracture and probable secondary osteomyelitis.

SMM P72.34.240: Distal ½ of fibula with transverse fracture.

SMM P92.2.53: Metapodial with comminuted fracture.

SMM P70.20.77, P76.28.53, P76.28.374, P76.28.375, P79.19.1012, P95.13.8: 6 metapotals with probable transverse fractures.

SMM P70.21.242, P72.34.25, P76.10.9. P76.28.364, P76.28.369, P76.28.370, P76.28.886, P79.19.313, P79.19.1006, P79.19.1014: Metopodials with periostopathy.

SMM P71.16.248: Metopodial with fusiform osteopathy.

SMM P95.13.9: Metacarpal V with spondyloarthropathy.

SMM P76.28.3: Metatarsal/phalange with sponyloarthropathy.

SMM P73.25.118, P75.22.47, P75.22.55, P75.22.517, P76.28.10, P77.33.246, P79.19.1004, P95.13.10: Metaodials with spondyloarthropathy.

SMM P75.22.4: Phalange with transverse fracture.

SMM P95.13.26: Phalange with oblique fracture.

SMM P70.20.1716, P72.34.23, P73.25.116, P74.24.326, P76.28.363, P76.28.368, P76.28.861, P77.33.248, P77.33.249, P77.33.250, P79.19.543, P79.19.995, P79.19.1003: Phalanges with periosteopathy/osteopathy.

SMM P74.24.232. P76.28.362, P76.28.367, P76.28.371, P76.28.838, P76.28.951, P79.19.1008, P92.2.25, P93.22.23: Phalanges with spondyloarthropathy.

SMM P74.24.29: Phalange with exostosis.

SMM P70.20.74, P76.28.450, P95.13.17: Gastralia with probable transverse fractures.

SMM P70.20.92, P71.16.274, P74.24.67. P74.24.76, P74.24.87, P79.19.232. P79.19.241, P79.19.245, P79.19.247, P79.19.257, P79.19.1017, P79.20.280, P89.6.104, P91.17.156, P93.22.99, P93.22.106, P93.22.114, P95.13.15, P95.13.16: Gastralia with probable transverse fractures.

SMM P79.19.1005: ungual with spondyloarthropathy.

SMM P70.20.1692: Ungual with exostosis.

SMM P77.33.88: Osteoscute with two perforating fractures.

SMM P72.34.230: Osteoscute with perforating fracture.

SMM P70.20.105, P71.16.259, P72.34.237, P72.34.239, P74.24.424, P75.22.164, P76.33.441, P79.19.935, P79.19.936, P79.19.937, P79.19.949, P79.19.961, P79.19.962 (“buttonhole”), P79.19.964, P79.19.966, P79.19.976, P79.19.984, P82.12.373, P82.12.497, P83.12.83, P83.12.116: Osteoscutes with perforating fractures.

SMM P82.12.382: Osteoscute with periostepathy/osteopathy.

SMM P79.19.941: Osteoscute with periosteopahty/osteopathy.

SMM P79.19.955: Osteoscue with periostepathy/osteopathy.

SMM P71.16.261, P73.25.117, P74.24.494, P76.28.866, P76.33.414 (2 specimens found together), P76.33.439, P76.33.457, P79.19.934, P79.19.940, P79.19.943, P79.19.946, P79.19.953, P79.19.954, JP79.19.956, P79.19.963, P79.19.974, P79.19.981, P79.19.985, P82.12.263, P82.12.496, P89.6.117, P93.22.37, P93.22.186, P95.13.13: Osteoscutes with periostoeopathy/osteopathy.

SMM P82.12.306: Osteoscute with probable malformation.

SMM P82.12.419: Osteoscute with probable malformation.

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Species: griffithorum emend WU, BRINKMAN & FOX, 2001
Etymology: In honor of the Griffith family, the owner of the land from which the holotype specimen was collected.
= Borealosuchus griffithi WU, BRINKMAN & FOX, 2001

Holotype: UALVP 40955

Locality: Griffith’s Farm, SW ¼, S18, T34, R21, W4 (According to the Prairie township and range system), Red Deer River Valley, southern Alberta Province, Canada.

Horizon: Less than 1 m above Nevis (#13) Coal Seam, basal coaly portion of the Scollard Formation.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Earliest Paleocene Epoch, Lower Paleogene Period, Lower Tertiary Subera, Cenozoic Era.

Material: Most of skull, left dentary, left splenial, left coronoid, right angular, right surangular, right articular, right ulna, a caudal vertebra, some dorsal osteoderms, and other postcranial fragments.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Species: threensis BROCHU, PARRIS, GRANDSTAFF, DENTON & GALLAGHER, 2012
Etymology: Threensis, in reference to the question every New Jersey resident encounters when traveling: "Oh, you're from New Jersey? Which exit?" The type localitiy is most easily reached from the New Jersey Turnipke by taking Exit 3 and heading east on New Jersey Highway 168.

Holotype; NJSM 11902

Locality: Inversand marl pit in Sewell, Mantua Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey.

Horizon: Hornerstown Formation, Rancocas Group.

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Latest Maastrichtian Stage, uppermost Senonian subepoch, Gulf Epoch, Late Cretaceous.

Material: Isolated left ectoptrygoid and lower jaws with associated postcranial remains.

Referred material:

NJSM 11903: Vertebrae adn osteoderms.