Genus: Diictodon BROOM, 1913
Etymology: Greek, di-, “two”, Greek, iktis, “ferret”, Greek, odon, “tooth”: Two ferret tooth.
= Emydorhynchus BROOM 1913
Etymology: Greek, emydos (emys), “turtle”, Greek, rhygkhos, ”snout”, + us: Turtle beak.
= Pylaecephalus van HOEPEN, 1934
Etymology:

Species: feliceps (OWEN, 1876) CLUVER & HOTTON, 1981
Etymology:
= Dicynodon feliceps OWEN, 1876
= Rhachinocephalodon feliceps (OWEN, 1876) SEELEY, 1898

Holotype: BMNH 47052

Locality: Fort Beaufort, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Pristerognathus zone (Pristerognathus-Diictodon zone, KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1990, KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Upper Tapinocephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, WATSON, 1914, Upper Pareiasaurus zone BROOM, 1906).

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material: Skull and lower jaw.

Referred material:

Locality: Gouph district, Near Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Permian.

Material:

BMNH R857, R858: Fragmentary skulls.

 


Locality: Near Fort Beaufort, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Permian.

Material:

BMNH 47099: Fragmentary skull.

 


Locality: North west of Fort Beaufort, Graaff Reinet District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Permian.

Material:

BMNH 47079: Fragmentary skull.

 


Locality: Gat River, Graaff Reinet District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Permian.

Material:

BMNH 47056: Anterior portion of skull.

BMNH 47056: Fragmentary skeleton.

 


Locality: Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Permian.

Material:

BMNH 47103: Fragmentary skull.

 

BROOM, 1913

Locality: Kuilspoort, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Permian.

Material:

Numbers: Not given: 3 or 4 skulls.

 

Locality: Kuilspoort, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone (Tropidostoma-Endothidon Assemblage zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Tropidostoma microtrema zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Cistecephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Endothiodon zone, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

AMNH 5327: Skull, cervical vertebrae and right shoulder girdle.

AMNH 5584: Snout.

 


Locality: Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone (Tropidostoma-Endothidon Assemblage zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Tropidostoma microtrema zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Cistecephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Endothiodon zone, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

AMNH 5583: Skull and lower jaw.

AMNH 5585-5590: Skulls.

AMNH 5533: Nearly complete skeleton.

 


RAY & CHINSAMY, 2003

Locality: Leeukloof, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

SAM-PK-K1633a: Tusked skull, lower jaw, partial vertebral column, scapula, clavicle, humeri, left radius, ulna and manus.

RAY & CHINSAMY, 2004

SAM-PK-K11099a: Femur and tibia.

SAM-PK-K11099b: Femur and tibia.

SAM-PK-K7725: Tibia.

SAM-PK-K7143: Femur.

 

Locality: Beaufort West, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

SAM-PK-K1633b: Complete right pectoral girdle, partial radius, ulna and manual digit bones.

SAM-PK-K7107: Skull, partial postcranial skeleton.

SAM-PK-11099a: Partial tusked skull, vertebral column, and femora.

SAM-PK-11099b: Partial postcranial skeleton.

SAM-PK-7786a: Tusked skull, lower jaw and partial skeleton.

SAM-PK-K7725: Partial vertebral column, sacrum, pelvic girdle and femora.

SAM-PK-K8561a: Tusked skull (ventral side up), lower jaw, and nearly complete skeleton.

SAM-PK-K7143: Tusked skull and few postcranial elements.

 


Locality: Fraserburg, Fraserburg District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

SAM-PK-K8658: Tusked skull, partial postcranial skeleton.

SAM-PK-K6704: Tusked skull, lower jaw, left forelimb and cervical vertebrae.

SAM-PK-K6716a: Tusked skull, lower jaw, vertebral column, pectoral girdle, sacrum, partial pelvic girdle, femora and tibia.

SAM-PK-K7082c: Tusked skull, lower jaw, and a few postcranial elements.

RAY & CHINSAMY, 2004

SAM-PK-K7082b: Femur.

SAM-PK-K7015: Humerus.

SAM-PK-K6717: Humerus and radius.

SAM-PK-K6716b: Femur.

 

Locality: Bergsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

SAM-PK-K6844a: Tusked skull, lower jaw and a few postcranial elements.

SAM-PK-K6844b: Tuskless skull, lower jaw and partial skeleton.

 


Locality: Dunedin West, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy: Cistecephalus zone

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

SAM-PK-10166: Partial skull roof, presacral vertebral column, pectoral girdle and forelimb.

SAM-PK-10175: Tuskless partial skull, lower jaw, incomplete scapula, radius, digit bones, and right pelvic girdle.

SAM-PK-K5477a, b: 2 tusked skulls and complete skeletons.

RAY & CHINSAMY, 2004

SAM-PK-10174Aa: Humeurs and radius.

SAM-PK-K5035b: Humerus and femur.

 

Locality: Golida kraal 240, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy: Cistecephalus zone

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

GS-RMS214: Tuskless skull and complete skeleton.

 

 

Locality: Taaibosch Hoek 73, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy: Cistecephalus zone

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

GS-M556: Tuskless skull, lower jaw, and partial skeleton.

 

 

Locality: Groot Trafel, Bergsfontein, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy: Cistecephalus zone

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

GS-RMS554: Tuskless skull, lower jaw, and partial skeleton.

 

RAY & CHINSAMY, 2004

Locality: Unknown, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy: Cistecephalus zone

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

SAM-PK-10219: Humerus and radius.

 

= Dicynodon jouberti BROOM, 1905
= Diictodon jouberti (BROOM, 1905) CLUVIER & HOTTON, 1981
Etymology:
= Sintocephalus jouberti (BROOM, 1905) van HOEPEN, 1934

Holotype: SAM 695

Locality: The Gouph Tract, or Koup, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tapinocephalus zone (Dinocephalian zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Tapinocephalus zone, KITCHING, 1970, 1977, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material: Skull and lower jaw.

Referred material:

SAM 577: Fragmentary skull.

 


Locality: Blaauwkraantz, Prince Albert Distict, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Permian.

Material:

UT Von Huene 1931 S. 184, UT Von Huene 1931 Abb. 21, UT Von Huene 1942 S.29, Abb. 23: Skulls.

 


= Dicynodon psittacops BROOM, 1912
= Diictodon psittacops (BROOM, 1912) CLUVIER & HOTTON, 1981
Etymology:

Holotype: AMNH 5534

Locality: Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Pristerognathus zone (Pristerognathus-Diictodon zone, KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1990, KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Upper Tapinocephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, WATSON, 1914, Upper Pareiasaurus zone BROOM, 1906).

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material: Skull and nearly complete skeleton.

Referred material:

BROOM, 1915

Locality: Grootfontein, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Pristerognathus zone (Pristerognathus-Diictodon zone, KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1990, KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Upper Tapinocephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, WATSON, 1914, Upper Pareiasaurus zone BROOM, 1906).

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material:

AMNH 5609: A nearly complete skeleton.

SAM 2660: Skull and lower jaw.

 


= Diictodon galeops BROOM, 1913
Etymology:

Holotype: AMNH 5308

Locality: Slachter's Nek, Somerset East District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Cistecephalus zone (formerly Aulacephalodon-Cistecephalus zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Aulacephalodon baini zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Upper Cistecephalus Zone, KITCHING, 1970, 77, Lower Cistecephalus zone WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material: Skull.

Note: As per Brink, 1982… this is the most abundant synapsid found in the Karoo Beds of South Africa. Many institutional collections include hundreds of specimens, those of the Bernard prince Institute and the Geological Survey of south Africa run in to thousands, as yet unprepared and unidentified…

 

= Dicynodon ictidops BROOM, 1913
= Diictodon ictidops (BROOM, 1913) CLUVIER & HOTTON, 1981
Etymology:
= Pylaecephalus ictidops (BROOM, 1913) van HOEPEN, 1934

Holotype: AMNH 55110

Locality: Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone (Tropidostoma-Endothidon Assemblage zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Tropidostoma microtrema zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Cistecephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Endothiodon zone, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material: Skull and lower jaw.

Referred material:

Locality: Klipfontein, Fraserburg, Northern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Permian.

Material:

SAM 1078: Skull and lower jaw.

 


= Emydorhynchus palustris BROOM, 1913= Diictodon palustris (BROOM, 1913) CLUVIER & HOTTON, 1981
Etymology:

Holotype: AMNH 5512

Locality: New Bethesda, Graaff Reinet District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy: Dicynodon zone (Dicynodon lacerticeps-Whaitsia zone, KEYSER 1979, SACS 1980, Dicynodon laticerticeps zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Daptocephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Upper Cistecephalus zone WATSON, 1914)

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material: Fragmentary skull.

Referred material:

BROOM, 1915

AMNH 5539: Anterior half of skeleton.

AMNH 5540: Fragmentary skeleton.

AMNH 5632: Fragmentary skull.

 


= Dicynodon macrorhynchus BROOM, 1921
Etymology:
= Diictodon macrorhynchus (BROOM, 1921) CLUVIER & HOTTON, 1981
= Pylaecephalus macrorhynchus (BROOM, 1921)

Holotype: BMNH R4954

Locality: New Bethesda, Graaff Reinet District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy: Dicynodon zone (Dicynodon lacerticeps-Whaitsia zone, KEYSER 1979, SACS 1980, Dicynodon laticerticeps zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Daptocephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Upper Cistecephalus zone WATSON, 1914)

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material: Skull.

Referred material:

Number: Not given: Skull.

 


= Dicynodon testudirostris BROOM & HAUGHTON, 1913
= Diictodon testudirostris (BROOM & HAUGHTON, 1913) CLUVIER & HOTTON, 1981
Etymology:
= Pylaecephalus testudirostris (BROOM & HAUGHTON, 1913) van HOEPEN, 1934

Holotype: SAM 2354

Locality: Dunedin, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone (Tropidostoma-Endothidon Assemblage zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Tropidostoma microtrema zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Cistecephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Endothiodon zone, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material: Skull.

Referred material:

SAM-PK-010086: Nearly complete skull and dentary.

SAM 10078: Fragmentary skull.

 

 

Locality: Noblesfontein, Victoria West District, Northern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone (Tropidostoma-Endothidon Assemblage zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Tropidostoma microtrema zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Cistecephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Endothiodon zone, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

SAM 10377: Fragmentary skull.

 


Locality: Kuilspoort, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone (Tropidostoma-Endothidon Assemblage zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Tropidostoma microtrema zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Cistecephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Endothiodon zone, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

SAM 6550:

SAM 7401:

 


Locality: Roosplaats, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone (Tropidostoma-Endothidon Assemblage zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Tropidostoma microtrema zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Cistecephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Endothiodon zone, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

SAM 10204:

 


Locality: Leeukloof, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone (Tropidostoma-Endothidon Assemblage zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Tropidostoma microtrema zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Cistecephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Endothiodon zone, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

SAM 11084:

 


Locality: Loskop, Victoria West District, Northern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone (Tropidostoma-Endothidon Assemblage zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Tropidostoma microtrema zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Cistecephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Endothiodon zone, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

SAM 10060:

 


Locality: Dunedin, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone (Tropidostoma-Endothidon Assemblage zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Tropidostoma microtrema zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Cistecephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Endothiodon zone, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

UT Von HUENE 1931 S. 35, Abb. 17, 19: Skull.

UT Von Huene 1931 S. 35, Abb. 28: 2 forelimbs practically complete.

 

SURKOV & BENTON, 2004

Locality: South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy: Cistecephalus zone.

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material: Skull.

 

 

= Dicynodon pygmaeus BROOM & HAUGHTON, 1917
Etymology:
= Diictodon pygmaeus (BROOM & HAUGHTON, 1917) CLUVIER & HOTTON, 1981
= Orophicephalus pygmaeus (BROOM & HAUGHTON, 1917)

Holotype: SAM 2664

Locality: Dunedin, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone (Tropidostoma-Endothidon Assemblage zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Tropidostoma microtrema zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Cistecephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Endothiodon zone, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material: Fragmentary female skull.

Referred material:

Locality: Hans River Dam, Commonage, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone (Tropidostoma-Endothidon Assemblage zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Tropidostoma microtrema zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Cistecephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Endothiodon zone, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

R 443: Skull.

 


= Dicynodon sollasi BROOM, 1921
= Diictodon sollasi (BROOM, 1921) CLUVIER & HOTTON, 1981
Etymology:
= Pylaecephalus sollasi (BROOM, 1921) van HOEPEN, 1934
= Diictodon solassi SURKOV & BENTON, 2004 (sic)

Holotype: SAM 7420

Locality: Near Biesjespoort, Victoria West District, Northern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone (Tropidostoma-Endothidon Assemblage zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Tropidostoma microtrema zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Cistecephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Endothiodon zone, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material: Skull.

Referred material:

19 other skulls.

 

HAUGHTON

Locality: Oudederg, Graaff Reinet District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone (Tropidostoma-Endothidon Assemblage zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Tropidostoma microtrema zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Cistecephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Endothiodon zone, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

RC 134: Skull and lower jaw.

 


HUENE, 1923

Locality: Biesjespoort, Victoria West District, Northern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone (Tropidostoma-Endothidon Assemblage zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Tropidostoma microtrema zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Cistecephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Endothiodon zone, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

Number: Not given: Skull.

 

JANENSCH, 1952

Locality: Biesjespoort, Victoria West District, Northern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone (Tropidostoma-Endothidon Assemblage zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Tropidostoma microtrema zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Cistecephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Endothiodon zone, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

Number: Not given: Skull and dentary.

 

 

SURKOV & BENTON, 2004

Locality: South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age: Late Permian.

Material:

CAMZM T546: Skull fragments and postcranial remains.

 

WATSON, 1948

Locality: Kuilspoort Nek, near Beaufort West, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone (Tropidostoma-Endothidon Assemblage zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Tropidostoma microtrema zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Cistecephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Endothiodon zone, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

R 53: Skull and dentary.

 

 

= Dicynodon haughtonianus HUENE, 1931
= Diictodon haughtonianus (HUENE, 1931) CLUVIER & HOTTON, 1981
Etymology:

Holotype: Institut fur Geologie und Palaontologie, University of Tubingen. UT Von HUENE 1931 ABB. 25

Locality: Blaaukrans, Prince Albert District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tapinocephalus zone (Dinocephalian zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Tapinocephalus zone, KITCHING, 1970, 1977, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material: Skull and anterior lower jaw..

 


= Dicynodon rubidgei BROOM, 1932
= Diictodon rubidgei (BROOM, 1932) CLUVIER & HOTTON, 1981
Etymology:
= Pylaecephalus rubidgei (BROOM, 1932) van HOEPEN, 1934

Holotype: RC 100 (BMNH 47081)

Locality: Wellwood, Graaff Reinet District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Pristerognathus zone (Pristerognathus-Diictodon zone, KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1990, KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Upper Tapinocephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, WATSON, 1914, Upper Pareiasaurus zone BROOM, 1906).

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material: Skull.

 


= Dicynodon grimbeeki BROOM, 1935
= Diictodon grimbeeki (BROOM, 1935) CLUVIER & HOTTON, 1981
Etymology:

Holotype: TM 253 (TM 245, TOERIEN, 1953)

Locality: Leeuwkloof, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone (Tropidostoma-Endothidon Assemblage zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Tropidostoma microtrema zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Cistecephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Endothiodon zone, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material: Skull.

Referred material:

TM 316, 380: Skull and dentary.

TM 326, TM 367: Skulls lacking posterior end and dentaries.

TM 381: Skull.

Plus 93 other skulls.

 


Topotype: TM 381

Locality: Farm Leeuwkloof, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Upper Tropidostoma zone (Tropidostoma-Endothidon Assemblage zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Tropidostoma microtrema zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Cistecephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Endothiodon zone, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material: Skull.

 

AGNEW

Locality: Farm Rosary near Farm Dunedin, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Hoedemaker member, Middle Teekloof Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tropidostoma zone (Tropidostoma-Endothidon Assemblage zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Tropidostoma microtrema zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Cistecephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Endothiodon zone, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material:

BP 294: Skull.

 


= Dicynodon nanus BROOM, 1936
= Diictodon nanus (BROOM, 1936) CLUVIER & HOTTON, 1981
Etymology:

Holotype: TM 268

Locality: Houd Constant, Graaff Reinet District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy: Dicynodon zone (Dicynodon lacerticeps-Whaitsia zone, KEYSER 1979, SACS 1980, Dicynodon laticerticeps zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Daptocephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, Upper Cistecephalus zone WATSON, 1914)

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material: Skull.

 


= Dicynodon huenei BROILI & SCHROEDER, 1936
= Diictodon huenei (BROILI & SCHROEDER, 1936) CLUVIER & HOTTON, 1981
Etymology:
= Oudenodon huenei (BROILI & SCHROEDER, 1936) TOERIEN, 1953
= Anomoiodon huenei (BROILI & SCHROEDER, 1936) KEYSER, 1975

Holotype: University of Munich, BSP 1934 VIII 46

Locality: Farm La-de-da, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy: Cistecephalus zone (formerly Aulacephalodon-Cistecephalus zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Aulacephalodon baini zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Upper Cistecephalus Zone, KITCHING, 1970, 77, Lower Cistecephalus zone WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material: Skull and dentary.

 


= Dicynodon broili BOONSTRA, 1954
Etymology:

Holotype:

Locality:

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy:

Age:

Material:

 

= Dicynodon broomi BROOM & SCHRODER, 1937
= Diictodon broomi (BROOM & SCHRODER, 1937) CLUVIER & HOTTON, 1981
Etymology:

Holotype: University of Munich, BSP 1934 viii 47a

Locality: Farm La-de-da, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Upper Tapinocephalus zone.

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material: Skull and dentary with tusks.

Referred material:

University of Munich, BSP 1934 viii 47b: Skull and dentary with no tusks.

 


= Dicynodon grossarthi BROOM & SCHRODER, 1937
= Diictodon grossarthi (BROOM & SCHRODER, 1937) CLUVIER & HOTTON, 1981
Etymology:

Holotype: University of Munich, BSP 1934 viii 48

Locality: La-de-da, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tapinocephalus zone.

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material: Skull.

 


= Dicynodon anneae BROOM, 1940
= Diictodon anneae (BROOM, 1940) KING, 1993
Etymology:
= Dicynodon whitsonae BROOM, 1940
= Diictodon whitsonae (BROOM, 1940) CLUVIER & HOTTON, 1981

Holotype: RC 42

Locality: Wellwood, Graaff Reinet District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy: Cistecephalus zone (formerly Aulacephalodon-Cistecephalus zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, Aulacephalodon baini zone KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Upper Cistecephalus Zone, KITCHING, 1970, 77, Lower Cistecephalus zone WATSON, 1914).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material: Skull.

 


= Dicynodon pseudojouberti BOONSTRA, 1948
= Diictodon pseudojouberti (BOONSTRA, 1948) CLUVIER & HOTTON, 1981
Etymology:

Holotype: SAM 774

Locality: Prince Albert Road, Prince Albert District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Pristerognathus zone (Pristerognathus-Diictodon zone, KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1990, KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Upper Tapinocephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, WATSON, 1914, Upper Pareiasaurus zone BROOM, 1906).

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material: Skull.

Referred material:

Locality: Blaaukrans, Prince Albert District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Pristerognathus zone (Pristerognathus-Diictodon zone (KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1990, KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Upper Tapinocephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, WATSON, 1914, Upper Pareiasaurus zone BROOM, 1906).

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material:

SAM 3613: Skull.

 


Locality: Kleinkoedoeskop, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Pristerognathus zone (Pristerognathus-Diictodon zone, KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1990, KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Upper Tapinocephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, WATSON, 1914, Upper Pareiasaurus zone BROOM, 1906).

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material:

SAM 9013, 9104: Skulls.

 


Locality: Buffelsvlei, Prince Albert District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Pristerognathus zone (Pristerognathus-Diictodon zone (KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1990, KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Upper Tapinocephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, WATSON, 1914, Upper Pareiasaurus zone BROOM, 1906).

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material:

SAM-PK-011461: Skull.

 

Locality: Kroonplaas, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Pristerognathus zone (Pristerognathus-Diictodon zone, KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1990, KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Upper Tapinocephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, WATSON, 1914, Upper Pareiasaurus zone BROOM, 1906).

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material:

SAM 11562, 11564: Skulls.

 


Locality: Koedoeskop, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Pristerognathus zone (Pristerognathus-Diictodon zone, KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1990, KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Upper Tapinocephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, WATSON, 1914, Upper Pareiasaurus zone BROOM, 1906).

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material:

SAM 11589: Skull.

 


Locality: Prince Albert District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Pristerognathus zone (Pristerognathus-Diictodon zone, KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1990, KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Upper Tapinocephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, WATSON, 1914, Upper Pareiasaurus zone BROOM, 1906).

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material:

SAM 11692: Skull.

 


Locality: Elandsberg, Sutherland, Southern Northern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Pristerognathus zone (Pristerognathus-Diictodon zone, KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1990, KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Upper Tapinocephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, WATSON, 1914, Upper Pareiasaurus zone BROOM, 1906).

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material:

SAM 11699: Skull.

 


Locality: Esperances, Sutherland, Southern Northern Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Pristerognathus zone (Pristerognathus-Diictodon zone, KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1990, KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Upper Tapinocephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, WATSON, 1914, Upper Pareiasaurus zone BROOM, 1906).

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material:

SAM 11703: Skull.

 

Locality: Kleinkoedoeskop, Beaufort West District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Pristerognathus zone (Pristerognathus-Diictodon zone, KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1990, KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Upper Tapinocephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, WATSON, 1914, Upper Pareiasaurus zone BROOM, 1906).

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material:

SAM 11773, 11774, 11775, 11784, 11785: Skulls.

 


Locality: Seekoeigat, Prince Albert District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Pristerognathus zone (Pristerognathus-Diictodon zone, KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1990, KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Upper Tapinocephalus zone KITCHING, 1970, 1977, WATSON, 1914, Upper Pareiasaurus zone BROOM, 1906).

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material:

SAM 11795: Skull.

 


= Dicynodon vanderhorsti TOERIEN, 1953
= Diictodon vanderhorsti (TOERIEN, 1953) CLUVIER & HOTTON, 1981
Etymology:

Holotype: BP 175

Locality: Antjiesfontein, Prince Albert District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tapinocephalus zone (Dinocephalian zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Tapinocephalus zone, KITCHING, 1970, 1977, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material: Skull.

Paratypes:

Males: 162, 168, 171, 176, 179, 181: Skulls.

Females: 173, 180: Skulls.

Immature: 171, 189: Skulls.

 

Locality: Klein Waterval, Prince Albert District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tapinocephalus zone (Dinocephalian zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Tapinocephalus zone, KITCHING, 1970, 1977, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material:

Male: BP 182: Skull.

Female: BP 184, 189: Skulls.

 


= Dicynodon antjiesfonteinensis TOERIEN, 1953
Etymology:
= Diictodon antjiesfonteinensis (TOERIEN, 1953) CLUVIER & HOTTON, 1981

Holotype: BP 219

Locality: Antjiesfontein, Prince Albert District, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Horizon: Middle Abrahamskraal Formation.

Biostratigraphy: Tapinocephalus zone (Dinocephalian zone KEYSER, 1979, SACS, 1980, KEYSER & SMITH, 1977-78, Lower Tapinocephalus zone, KITCHING, 1970, 1977, WATSON, 1914).

Age: Early Tatarian age, Guadelupian Stage, Middle Zeichstein Epoch, Middle Permian.

Material: Skull.

 


= Diictodon sesoma WATSON, 1960
Etymology:

Holotype: UMZC R 314

Locality: Immediately south of a low bridge crossing the Buffels River, on the main road from Murraysburg to Nelspoort, Free (Orange Free) State, South Africa.

Horizon:

Biostratigraphy: Cistecephalus zone.

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material: Skull, mandible and fragmentary skeleton.

Referred material:

MUZC R 315: Fragmentary skull and fragmentary skeleton.

 


= Dicynodon tienshanensis SUN, 1973
= Diictodon tienshanensis (SUN, 1973) CLUVIER & HOTTON, 1981
Etymology:

Holotype: IVPP V3260

Locality: 'Turfan Basin', north foot of the Tienshan mountains, Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu (Sinkang) Province, China.

Horizon: Lower Ko-Ko-Ya Group or Upper Jijicao Group.

Biostratigraphy: Dicynodon Assemblage zone (LUCAS, 2005).

Age: Tatarian Age, Lopingian Subepoch, Zechstein Epoch, Late Permian.

Material: Skull.